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基于步进电机的两轮自平衡机器人控制系统设计

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基于步进电机的两轮自平衡机器人控制系统设计(中文3000字,英文2000字)
摘 要
由于传感器众多,价格昂贵,两轮自平衡机器人的通用控制系统通常结构复杂。根据这种情况,提出了一种带步进电机驱动器的控制系统,省去了光学编码器和无刷直流电机等昂贵的元件。同时,选择低功耗,高性能的STM32,32位微处理器作为控制器。通过调节STM32定时器预分频值来调节输出脉冲频率,该值可调节步进电机速度。利用加速度计和陀螺仪输出信号的卡尔曼滤波器形成的倾斜角作为反馈,实现了两轮机器人的自平衡闭环控制。
关键字:两轮机器人;自平衡; STM32;卡尔曼滤波器; PID控制;预分频器值
Control System Design for Two-Wheel Self-BalancedRobot Based on the Stepper Motorself-balanced robot usually has a complex structure due to plentyof sensors, whoseprice is very expensive. According to thiscondition, a control system with the stepper motor driver isproposed, eliminating the expensive components, like optical
encoder and brushless DC motor. At the same time, thelow-power and high-performance STM32, 32-bit microprocessor,is selected as a controller. Outputted pulse frequency is adjustedthrough the adjustment of STM32 timer prescaler value, whichregulates the step motor speed. With inclination angle formed bythe Kalman filter of the output signal of the accelerometer andgyroscope as feedback, self-balanced closed loop control oftwo-wheeled robot is realized.

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